Manufacturing has become a key target for adversaries due to the inherent safety challenges and scale of a potential attack. Some of the challenges we see are outlined below:

1. Convergence of IT and OT:
As OT systems become increasingly interconnected with IT networks, the attack surface expands. Ensuring seamless integration while maintaining robust security is challenging.

2. Legacy Systems:
Many manufacturing facilities operate with outdated OT that may not be compatible with modern cybersecurity solutions, making them vulnerable to attacks.

3. Lack of Visibility:
Achieving complete visibility across both IT and OT environments is difficult, yet it's crucial for detecting and responding to security threats.

4. Insufficient Security Protocols:
OT systems were often not designed with security in mind, leading to insufficient built-in protection against cyber threats.

5. Complex Supply Chains:
Manufacturers often have extensive supply chains, which introduce multiple points of vulnerability that can be exploited by cyber attackers.

6. Regulatory Compliance:
The manufacturing industry is subject to various compliance requirements, and staying up to date with these can be complex, especially across global operations.

7. IP and Trade Secret Protection:
Manufacturers must protect sensitive data, including intellectual property and trade secrets, from cyber espionage.

8. Employee Training and Awareness:
Employees may lack training on cybersecurity best practices, which can lead to inadvertent breaches or failure to detect phishing attempts.

9. Resource Constraints:
Small and medium-sized manufacturers may lack the resources to implement and maintain strong cybersecurity measures.

10. Incident Response and Recovery:
Many manufacturers do not have a comprehensive incident response plan for cyber incidents, which can delay recovery and resume normal operations.

Addressing these challenges requires a strategic approach that includes risk assessments, regular updates to security protocols, employee training, network segmentation, and real-time monitoring of both IT and OT systems.